HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)
|The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (Committee) reconvened a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Working Group in 1995. The primary goal was to review the Committee’s November 1992 HACCP document, comparing it to current HACCP guidance prepared by the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. Based upon its review, the Committee made the HACCP principles more concise; revised and added definitions; included sections on prerequisite programs, education and training, and implementation and maintenance of the HACCP plan; revised and provided a more detailed explanation of the application of HACCP principles; and provided an additional decision tree for identifying critical control points (CCPs).
Preventing problems from occurring is the paramount goal underlying any HACCP system. Seven basic principles are employed in the development of HACCP plans that meet the stated goal. Under such systems, if a deviation occurs indicating that control has been lost, the deviation is detected and appropriate steps are taken to reestablish control in a timely manner to assure that potentially hazardous products do not reach the consumer.
In the application of HACCP, the use of microbiological testing is seldom an effective means of monitoring CCPs because of the time required to obtain results. Microbiological criteria do, however, play a role in verifying that the overall HACCP system is working.
The Committee believes that the HACCP principles should be standardized to provide uniformity in training and applying the HACCP system by industry and government. For a successful HACCP program to be properly implemented, management must be committed to a HACCP approach. A commitment by management will indicate an awareness of the benefits and costs of HACCP and include education and training of employees. Benefits, in addition to enhanced assurance of food safety, are better use of resources and timely response to problems.
HACCP 7 Principles :
|1st Principle: Analyse hazards
Potential hazards associated with a food and measures to control those hazards are identified. The hazard could be biological, such as a microbe; chemical, such as a toxin; or physical, such as ground glass or metal fragments.
|2nd Principle: Identify critical control points
These are points in a food’s production–from its raw state through processing and shipping to consumption by the consumer–at which the potential hazard can be controlled or eliminated. Examples are cooking, cooling, packaging, and metal detection.
|3rd Principle: Establish preventive measures with critical limits for each control point
For a cooked food, for example, this might include setting the minimum cooking temperature and time required to ensure the elimination of any harmful microbes.
|4th Principle: Establish procedures to monitor the critical control points.
Such procedures might include determining how and by whom cooking time and temperature should be monitored.
|5th Principle: Establish corrective actions to be taken when monitoring shows that a critical limit has not been met
For example, reprocessing or disposing of food if the minimum cooking temperature is not met.
|6th Principle: Establish procedures to verify that the system is working properly
For example, testing time-and-temperature recording devices to verify that a cooking unit is working properly.
|7th Principle: Establish effective record keeping to document the HACCP system
This would include records of hazards and their control methods, the monitoring of safety requirements and action taken to correct potential problems. Each of these principles must be backed by sound scientific knowledge: for example, published microbiological studies on time and temperature factors for controlling food borne pathogens.
- It is applicable to all those organizations, which are involved in any aspect of the food chain like food grower, processors, storage, manufacturer, packing material supplier, logistic service provider etc.